Friday, September 21, 2012

Early Semester Formless Monsters

In 101 courses, I have consistently run into problems getting across the importance of symbols in anthropology, and human life in general. In an “aha” moment that I wish would have hit me long ago, I think a major area of confusion stems from the very different usages of the word, symbol, in academic vs. popular conversations.

In anthropology, symbols occupy a foundational role in understanding people (Holy Semiosis, Batman!). Symbols are at the heart of being human, or as Geertz (in one of my favorite quotes of all time) argues:

The extreme generality, diffuseness, and variability of (hu)man’s innate (that is genetically programmed) response capacities means that without the assistance of cultural patterns (i.e. symbols-my addition) (w)e would be functionally incomplete, not merely a talented ape who had, like some underprivileged child, unfortunately been prevented from realizing his full potentialities, but a kind of formless monster with neither sense of direction nor power of self-control, a chaos of spasmodic impulses and vague emotions [1973:99]*

If the lack of something makes us formless monsters, then it’s pretty important.

However, in popular usage, symbol is often used to denote either ceremonial, or just plain old fruffy acts that don’t really matter (here, I’m thinking of ground breakings for new buildings with golden shovels, or ship christenings with broken bottles--”symbolic gestures”) or explicitly and obviously value laden things like American flags and crucifixes.

In an anthropological sense, symbols and meaning are bound up in so much more as the vast majority of a human’s day is full of symbols--interpreting the world through frameworks of what everything means.

I’ve begun to explicitly discuss the differences between these two usages to highlight the specificity of the anthropological use (I’ve got to reign myself in from getting super-meta discussing multiple meanings of meaning when talking to freshmen). The key word that helps immeasurably with this is meaning. When I introduce this word, the two uses become nearly opposites. In its popular use, symbols don’t seem to mean much, but anthropologically they mean everything.

Reference Cited

Geertz, Clifford
1973 Religion as a Cultural System. In The Interpretation of Cultures, pp. 87-125. Basic Books.

*Some of the parenthetical additions added for gender neutral language.

1 comment:

  1. In teaching about religion, a similar problem is the word and concept of "myth." Most students only see myths as false and foolish things, so it is very hard to get them to take in the idea of myth as powerful, foundational, paradigmatic, narrative. Going the other way, attempting to show students how some taken-for-granted sacred narratives such as the miraculous life of Christ could also be seen as myths elicits a more angry response from students unwilling to see their own religious identity and traditions analyzed in this way. Hard work all around! One must always remember the Myth of Sisyphys....!